Seija-Liisa Karvonen, Timo Korkiamaki, Heli Yla-Outinen, Marja Nissinen, Harri Teerikangas, Kati Pummi, Jaakko Karvonen, and Juha Peltonen
Intracellular calcium plays an important part in the regulation of proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes. Detached from their in vivo environment, cultured psoriatic keratinocytes were investigated by monitoring free intracellular calcium concentration, which was measured using fura-2/AM as a calcium-sensitive probe. The mean increase in intracellular calcium of psoriatic keratinocytes was significantly reduced compared with control keratinocytes when intracellular calcium stores were mobilized from endoplasmic reticulum with thapsigargin. This finding suggests defective capacitative calcium in ̄ux of psoriatic cells. Intracellular calcium stores were similar in psoriatic and control keratinocytes, when extracellular calcium was chelated with ethyleneglycol-bis(B-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N’,N’,-tetraacetic acid and intracellular calcium was depleted with thapsigargin. Mechanical wounding of keratinocyte monolayer resulted in a signi®cantly reduced rise in intracellular calcium of psoriatic cells in low (< 0.1 mM) and high (1.8 mM) extracellular calcium suggesting defective intercellular coupling of psoriatic keratinocytes. Blocking of gap-junctions with heptanol in wounded keratinocytes did not affect the intracellular calcium response in psoriatic keratinocytes in contrast to healthy keratinocytes. Adding adenosine triphosphate to culture medium resulted in a more pronounced intracellular calcium increase than thapsigargin in psoriatic keratinocytes, suggest- ing that inositol triphosphate-mediated, P2-purinergic signaling was enhanced in these cells. Moreover, psoriatic keratinocytes maintained their defective responses up to at least ®fth passage suggesting that psoriatic keratinocytes have an inborn error in calcium metabolism, rather than a localized defect in response to altered extracellular calcium gradient observed in vivo.
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