According to WHO, the global prevalence of diabetes was estimated to be 9% among adults aged 18+ years. CBS News found that about 371 million people have diabetes in the world and an estimated 4 million deaths were directly caused by diabetes in 2011. WHO projects that diabetes will be the 7th leading cause of death in 2030. Already $471 billion was spent treating diabetes in 2012.
Recent studies have demonstrated that impaired fasting glucose is one of predictor of type 2 diabetes. Calcium regulates blood glucose and plays an important role in the release of insulin because calcium is an intracellular messenger that is used throughout the life cycle of an organism to control diverse biological processes. In fact, insulin secretion is a calcium dependent biological process. Calcium is needed for the release of insulin to respond to higher amounts of blood glucose.
Diabetes is a condition in which cell Ca2+ homeostasis is impaired. According to several researchers, elevated calcium is associated with insulin resistance and fasting glucose. It indicates insulin resistance and secretion depend on calcium homeostasis. Recent studies suggests that high serum calcium concentration is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. However, there is limitation in blood test because total calcium level is detected in the blood test. About 50% of calcium is protein bound in the blood and 40% is ionized calcium which is physically important.